Dengue fever Crack + Virus Outbreak in Children {Latest} 2020

Dengue fever Crack + Virus Outbreak in Children {Latest} 2020

Dengue fever Crack is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has emerged as a global public health problem with countries in Asia and the Pacific sharing more than 70% of the disease burden. In 2004–2005 a total of 312 cases admitted to Pediatric and Sea Port Hospitals in Port Sudan were clinically diagnosed as DHF. The mortality rate recorded was 3.8% (n = 12). Of the cases, 73.4% were patients 5–15 years of age. A total of 91.2% of cases were admitted during May and June 2005 with 49.4% residing in the eastern region of Port Sudan.

Dengue fever Crack + Virus Outbreak in Children {Latest} 2020

Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever, and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age.

Differential diagnosis:

Dengue fever can easily be confused with non-dengue illnesses, particularly in nonepidemic situations. Depending on the geographical origin of the patient, other etiologies including non-dengue flavivirus infections should be ruled out[11]. These include yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, St Louis encephalitis, Zika, and West Nile, alphaviruses (such as Sinbis and chikungunya), and other causes of fever such as malaria, leptospirosis, typhoid, Rickettsial diseases (Rickettsia prowazeki, R. Mosseri, R. color, R. rickettsia, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burner, etc.), measles, enteroviruses, influenza, and influenza-like illnesses, hemorrhagic fevers (Arenaviridae: Junin, etc.; Filoviridae: Marburg, Ebola; Bunyaviridae: hantaviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, etc.).

Outbreak investigations:

During outbreaks, some patients may be seen presenting with fever with or without rash during the acute illness stage. some others may present with signs of plasma leakage while still others may be observed during the convalescent phase[12].

One of the priorities in a suspected outbreak is to identify the causative agent so that appropriate public health measures can be taken and physicians can be encouraged to initiate appropriate acute illness management[13]. In such cases, the rapidity and specificity of diagnostic tests is more important than test sensitivity. Samples collected from febrile patients could be tested by nucleic acid methods in a well-equipped laboratory or a broader spectrum of laboratories using an ELISA-based dengue antigen detection kit. Serological assays may be used to determine the extent of outbreaks[14].

Vaccine trials:

Vaccine trials are performed in order to measure vaccine safety and efficacy in vaccinated persons. The plaque reduction and neutralization test (PRNT) and the microneutralization assays are commonly used to measure protection correlates[15].
The assay is based on the principle that neutralizing antibodies inactivate the virus so that it is no longer able to infect and replicate in target cells.

After a second dengue virus infection, high-titer neutralizing antibodies are produced against at least two, and often all four, dengue viruses as well as against non-dengue flaviviruses[16]. During the early convalescent stage following sequential dengue infections, the highest neutralizing antibody titer is often directed against the first infecting virus and not the most recent one[16].

At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing this disease. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease-related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. This review outlines aspects of the epidemiology of dengue infections, the dengue virus and its mosquito vector, clinical features and pathogenesis of dengue infections, and the management and control of these infections.

“The concern is that for dengue fever there is no vaccine,” like there is for yellow fever, says Vishvanath Nene, a molecular biologist at the J. Craig Venter Institute in Rockville, Md., and lead author of the paper presenting the genome, published in the online edition of Science. “There is no other method of control other than trying to target the mosquito itself.”

Dengue fever Crack + Virus Outbreak in Children {Latest} 2020

Introduction:

Dengue is an infectious disease caused by female mosquito AEDES AEGYPTI. It is a mosquito-borne infection found in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world[1]. Infection with dengue virus results in various conditions like pathological ranging from mild asymptomatic dengue fever to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome that causes death[2].

Epidemiology: Dengue has become one of the widest spreadable diseases globally. In India, an outbreak of dengue was recorded in 1812. A recent dengue distribution model has estimated 390 million dengue infections annually, out of which 96 million cases occurred.

A double peak hemorrhagic fever epidemic occurred in India for the first time in Calcutta between July 1963 and March 1964. Thus, there is an urgent need for improvement in surveillance to enable the authorities to prepare adequately for records of the outbreak[3].
Dengue Virus: This virus is also known as Flavivirus and they are spherical and 40-60 mm in diameter. It is an RNA virus that is enveloped contains three structural polypeptides two are glycosylated and replication in the cytoplasm[4]. The most potent vector having epidemic potential A. aegypti and other species are Aedes albopictus, A. stegomyia, A. polnesiensis, A. scutellaris, A. finally but in India, A. Tigris is very common. Four dengue viruses (types 1-4) within the genus flavivirus and family Flaviviridae, are the causative agents[5]. All four subtypes are found in India. Dengue virions are small particles with lipoprotein envelope and nucleocapsid of a single-stranded RNA genome with positive polarity. There is a close antigenic similarity between the four serotypes but the cross-protection in humans is at best partial and transient[6].

Diagnosis:

Efficient and accurate diagnosis of dengue is of primary importance for clinical care (i.e. early detection of severe cases, case confirmation, and differential diagnosis with other infectious diseases), surveillance activities, outbreak control, pathogenesis, academic research, vaccine development, and clinical trials[8].

A range of laboratory diagnostic methods has been developed to support patient management and disease control. The choice of diagnostic method depends on the purpose for which the testing is done (e.g. clinical diagnosis, epidemiological survey, vaccine development), the type of laboratory facilities and technical expertise available, costs, and the time of sample collection[9].

The below figure represent the Approximate time-line of primary and secondary dengue virus infections and the diagnostic methods that can be used to detect infection.

Dengue fever Crack + Virus Outbreak in Children {Latest} 2020

Symptoms:

Many people especially children and teens feel no signs or symptoms during a mild case of dengue fever. When symptoms do occur, they usually begin 4 to 7 days after you are bitten by an infected mosquito[7].
Dengue fever causes a high fever of 104 F  and these are the following symptoms:

  • Headache
  • Muscle, bone, and joint pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Swollen glands
  • Rash

Most people recover within a week. In some cases, symptoms worsen and can become life-threatening. Blood vessels often become damaged and leaky and the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your bloodstream drops. This can cause a severe form of dengue fever, called dengue hemorrhagic fever, severe dengue, or dengue shock syndrome.

Signs and symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever or severe dengue a life-threatening emergency include:

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Bleeding from your gums or nose
  • Blood in your urine, stools, or vomit
  • Bleeding under the skin, which might look like bruising
  • Difficult or rapid breathing
  • Cold or clammy skin (shock)
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability or restlessness

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